“vioxx tragedy spotlights failure of animal research,”
ProCon.org. Some of these critical views on the ethics of animal testing have led to welfarist approaches aimed at reducing the suffering of animals — such as the development of the 3R (refine, reduce, replace) of Russell and Burch -, while others advocate for abolitionist procedures, with a complete ban of the use of animals in research. Designed in 1944 and largely used since then, it consists in a cutaneous application of a substance on rabbits, and a record of the skin aspect (erythema, edema, pain, local heat, etc.). This poster has been selected among the 3 best posters of the congress demonstrating the growing interest in the field of alternatives to animal experimentation. University of California Press, U.S.A. Russell W.M.S., Burch R.L. 30, 2013, Americans for Medical Progress, "Touring an Animal Research Facility," youtube.com, Oct. 21, 2008, Tibor R. Machan, "Animals Do Not Have Rights," nytimes.com, Apr. Over 100 stroke drugs that were effective when tested on animals have failed in humans, and over 85 HIV vaccines failed in humans after working well in non-human primates. Based on a study by the FDA, 92% of drugs that pass animal tests fail human clinical trials. (AGD/Audience Motivation) I want everyone in this class to close your eyes. Mandatory National Service – Should the United States Have Mandatory National Service? In safety testing, a drug must be proven to be safe for human use : it must be non life-threatening and avoid the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADR). The way begins to be paved for a more individualized practice of medicine. Bringing together more than 20 biologists, physicians and veterinarians, it supports concrete initiatives, through the financial support of a fund (EthicScience) and lobbying in the European institutions, and publishes a quarterly newspaper in French, ”Sciences Enjeux Sant”, that covers the news in the scientific community around alternatives to animal testing. Cut Out the Animals!," huffingtonpost.com, July 11, 2013, Junhee Seok et al., "Genomic Responses in Mouse Models Poorly Mimic Human Inflammatory Diseases,", Marcel Leist and Thomas Hartung, "Inflammatory Findings on Species Extrapolations: Humans Are Definitely No 70-kg Mice,", Humane Society International, "Costs of Animal and Non-Animal Testing," hsi.org (accessed Oct. 15, 2013), Kathleen Conlee, "Animal Testing Not Effective," live.huffingtonpost.com, July 12, 2013, US National Institutes of Health, "NIH Budget," nih.gov (accessed Oct. 15, 2013), Carol Kilkenny et al., "Survey of the Quality of Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis and Reporting of Research Using Animals,", Humane Society of the United States, "Questions and Answers about Biomedical Research," humanesociety.org, Sep. 16, 2013, Richard Dawkins, "But Can They Suffer," richarddawkins.net, June 29, 2011, Humane Society of the United States, "Undercover Investigation Reveals Cruelty to Chimps at Research Lab," humanesociety.org, Mar. The Hastings Center, "Fact Sheet: Animals Used in Research in the U.S.," animalresearch.thehastingscenter.org (accessed Oct. 15, 2013), Speaking of Research, "US Statistics," speakingofresearch.com (accessed Oct. 15, 2013), The Jane Goodall Institute of Canada, "Conservation & Threats," janegoodall.ca (accessed Oct. 15, 2013), Science Museum (UK), "Thalidomide," sciencemuseum.org.uk (accessed Oct. 17, 2013), US Department of Defense, "Animal Care and Use Programs for Fiscal Years 2006 and 2007," dtic.mil (accessed Oct. 15, 2013), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), "A Brief History of Animals in Space," history.nasa.gov (accessed Oct. 17, 2013), California Biomedical Research Association, "CBRA Fact Sheet: Why Are Animals Necessary in Biomedical Research?," ca-biomed.org (accessed Oct. 15, 2013), AnimalResearch.info, "Diseases & Research," animalresearch.info (accessed Oct. 15, 2013), Elizabeth Fisher, "Why We Should Accept Animal Testing," huffingtonpost.co.uk, July 17, 2013, Speaking of Research, "Alternatives?," speakingofresearch.com (accessed Oct. 15, 2013), American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, "Animal Research FAQ," aalas.org (accessed Oct. 15, 2013), Associated Press, "Texas Research Chimps Face Retirement, Relocation," khou.com, July 22, 2013, Kara Rogers, "Scientific Alternatives to Animal Testing: A Progress Report," britannica.com, Sep. 17, 2007, Jonathan Smith, "Can Biotechnology Reduce Animal Testing in Medicine?,” labiotech.eu, Apr. Science is thus seen as being ethics-free, exempt of stating moral judgments. Proper citation depends on your preferred or required style manual. Many authors have highlighted reasons explaining the amorality of using animals in research. Pro Anima scientific committee 18, 2014, Jeff Flake, "Wastebook: Porkemon Go," flake.senate.gov, Jan. 2017, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), "Tell Congress: Cut Funding for Cruel Experiments on Animals," support.peta.org (accessed Oct. 18, 2017), Emily Trunnell, "The University of Pittsburgh Is Using Taxpayer Dollars to Conduct Cruel and Unnecessary Animal Experiments," alternet.org, Sep. 7, 2017, Stacy L. Pritt and Robert E. Hammer, "The Interplay of Ethics, Animal Welfare, and IACUC Oversight on the Reproducibility of Animal Studies,", New Internationalist, "Is Animal Testing Necessary to Advance Medical Research?" However, it has been criticized for being subjective, leading to an overestimation of the toxicity for humans, and harming animals. 16, 2020, Michelle Roberts, "Coronavirus: US Volunteers Test First Vaccine,” bbc.com, Mar. In opposition to this vision, Tom Reagan argues that each animal has an intrinsic value, that should be considered independently to the use that humans can take advantage of, and states that animal testing is supported by an overestimation of benefits and an underestimation of harms. The LD50 test accounts for the determination of the human lethal dose of a substance, through the measure of the lethal dose for 50 per cent of the animals.

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