salem witch trials impact american legal system
The Salem witch trials was a huge part of American history, they are important to remember because they are probably a crucial turning point for America, because before the trials religion and superstition were very important and after the trials happened rational thinking became more and more important. [109][full citation needed] In 1703, another petition was filed,[110] requesting a more equitable settlement for those wrongly accused, but it was not until 1709, when the General Court received a further request, that it took action on this proposal. Warrants were issued for 36 more people, with examinations continuing to take place in Salem Village: Sarah Dustin (daughter of Lydia Dustin), Ann Sears, Bethiah Carter Sr. and her daughter Bethiah Carter Jr., George Jacobs, Sr. and his granddaughter Margaret Jacobs, John Willard, Alice Parker, Ann Pudeator, Abigail Soames, George Jacobs, Jr. (son of George Jacobs, Sr. and father of Margaret Jacobs), Daniel Andrew, Rebecca Jacobs (wife of George Jacobs, Jr. and sister of Daniel Andrew), Sarah Buckley and her daughter Mary Witheridge. Brown, David C.  “The Case of Giles Corey.” EIHC (Essex Institute Historical Collections, F72.E7E81) 121 (1985): 282-299. The authors were listed as "P. E. and J. [36], Mather illustrates how the Goodwins' eldest child had been tempted by the devil and had stolen linen from the washerwoman Goody Glover. Witchcraft and the Law:  A Selected Bibliography of Recent Publications (Christine Corcos, LSU Law)(includes mostly pre-2000 works). Lawson's account describes this cake "a means to discover witchcraft" and provides other details such as that it was made from rye meal and urine from the afflicted girls and was fed to a dog. 121, p. 108. Children against parents. These symptoms would fuel the craze of 1692. It is very certain that the Devils have sometimes represented the Shapes of persons not only innocent, but also very virtuous. If you recited the Lord’s Prayer, you were not a witch. Though I believe that the just God then ordinarily provides a way for the speedy vindication of the persons thus abused. According to Mark Podvia (see Timeline, PDF), the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony adopted the following statute in 1641: “If any man or woman be a WITCH, that is, hath or consulteth with a familiar spirit, they shall be put to death. Narratives of the Witchcraft Cases, 1648-1706 (Barnes & Noble, BF1573.B6901 1963). When she was examined before her trial, Bishop was asked about her coat, which had been awkwardly "cut or torn in two ways".[52]. In 1957, descendants of the six people who had been wrongly convicted and executed but who had not been included in the bill for a reversal of attainder in 1711, or added to it in 1712, demanded that the General Court formally clear the names of their ancestral family members. 9). [99] This book lists its place of publication as Philadelphia, but it is believed to have been secretly printed in Boston.[100]. 2, no. Preston, VK. After the event, four out of six Goodwin children began to have strange fits, or what some people referred to as "the disease of astonishment." [44], Each of these women was a kind of outcast and exhibited many of the character traits typical of the "usual suspects" for witchcraft accusations; they were left to defend themselves. Many people are still questioning this historical event and what lead to the people of Salem developing that particular mentality. National Archives (Great Britain), CO5/785, pp. Rachel Rosenberg Women's souls were seen as unprotected in their weak and vulnerable bodies. On September 19, 1692, Giles Corey refused to plead at arraignment, and was killed by peine forte et dure, a form of torture in which the subject is pressed beneath an increasingly heavy load of stones, in an attempt to make him enter a plea. 18. Mr. Burroughs was carried in a Cart with others, through the streets of Salem, to Execution. We know not whether some remarkable affronts given to the Devils by our disbelieving those testimonies whose whole force and strength is from them alone, may not put a period unto the progress of the dreadful calamity begun upon us, in the accusations of so many persons, whereof some, we hope, are yet clear from the great transgression laid unto their charge. [79] (The court later ruled that spectral evidence was inadmissible, which caused a dramatic reduction in the rate of convictions and may have hastened the end of the trials.) Simon Bradstreet and Thomas Danforth, the colony's last leaders under the old charter, resumed their posts as governor and deputy governor, but lacked constitutional authority to rule because the old charter had been vacated. "[13], The trials were started after people had been accused of witchcraft, primarily by teenage girls such as Elizabeth Hubbard, 17, as well as some who were younger. Burr says both Phips' letter and Mather's manuscript "must have gone to London by the same ship" in mid-October.[58]. The Puritan-dominated Parliamentarians emerged victorious, and the Crown was supplanted by the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell in 1653. [17] The original 1629 Royal Charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony was vacated in 1684,[18] after which King James II installed Sir Edmund Andros as the governor of the Dominion of New England. Hill, Frances. Francis, Richard. Records of the Salem Witch-Hunt (Cambridge University Press, XXKFM2478.8.W5R43 2009)(includes Richard B. Trask, “Legal Procedures Used During the Salem Witch Trials and a Brief History of the Published Versions of the Records” at pages 44-63). 618–619. The Examination of Sarah Good, March 1, 1692. Thomas Hutchinson writing his history of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the 18th century, describe her as a "Spanish Indian. A witch's teat was said to be a mole or blemish somewhere on the body that was insensitive to touch; discovery of such insensitive areas was considered de facto evidence of witchcraft.[91]. 136, Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA. [2], The episode is one of Colonial America's most notorious cases of mass hysteria. Hutchinson, Thomas. Abigail Hobbs, Mary Warren, and Deliverance Hobbs all confessed and began naming additional people as accomplices. The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology. On September 22, 1692, eight more persons were executed, "After Execution Mr. Noyes turning him to the Bodies, said, what a sad thing it is to see Eight Firebrands of Hell hanging there.

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